The Pope covered up child abuse by Julio Grassi, an Argentinian priest serving fifteen (15) years in jail for abusing teenage boys. , On 8 December 2017, Francis signed a new apostolic constitution on ecclesiastical universities and faculties Veritatis gaudium, published 29 January 2018. While in Rio, Pope Francis was on hand to celebrate World Youth Day. That fall, Pope Francis showed himself to be progressive on several scientific issues.  In the same month Francis asked parishes to provide answers to an official questionnaire described as a "much broader consultation than just a survey" regarding opinions among the laity.  After the completion of his term of office, in 1980 he was named the rector of the Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel where he had studied. Considered one of the 20th Century's greatest humanitarians, she was canonized as Saint Teresa of Calcutta in 2016. He lived in a small apartment, rather than in the elegant bishop's residence in the suburb of Olivos.  Since Francis became pope, Gonzalo Mosca and José Caravias have related to journalists accounts of how Bergoglio helped them flee the Argentine dictatorship. , Instead of accepting his cardinals' congratulations while seated on the papal throne, Francis received them standing, reportedly an immediate sign of a changing approach to formalities at the Vatican. Of that total number at the time of their elevation, 13 were under the age of eighty and four were over the age of eighty.  The next day, he visited Cardinal Jorge María Mejía in the hospital and chatted with patients and staff.  In September 2020, Pompeo urged Francis to stand against China's human rights violations. Woodhead said that many ordinary Catholics would have difficulty understanding theological jargon there. Antonio Primaldo and his 812 companions who had been executed by the Ottomans in 1480, as well as the religious sisters Laura of St. Catherine of Siena and María Guadalupe García Zavala – in this first canonization he surpassed the record of Pope John Paul II in canonizing the most saints in a pontificate. Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian (Piedmontese-Genoese) origin. Pope Francis — having joined the ranks of Pope John Paul II and Pope John XXIII, the only other popes to be awarded the title in 1994 and 1963, respectively—was a contender against other prominent figures of the year, including Edward Snowden, Senator Ted Cruz, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and Edith Windsor.  One commentator has described the conservative resistance against Francis as "unique in its visibility" in recent Church history. In addition, Esquire magazine named him as the "Best-dressed man" for 2013 for his simpler vestments often in tune with a modern simplistic design on sartorial fashion. They exchanged gifts and lunched together. He emphasizes the female talent and the importance of the charism of women for church and society. ", "China Is Already Breaking Its Vatican Deal", "cardinal-zen-the-vatican-is-badly-mishandling-china-situation", "Cardinal Zen targets Vatican silence on China, Hong Kong – La Croix International", "Pompeo Calls On Pope Francis to Defend Religious Freedom in China", "Rebuffed by Vatican, Pompeo Assails China and Aligns With Pope's Critics", "China dismisses Pope Francis's comments about persecution of Uighurs", "What Donald Trump and Pope Francis actually have in common", "Trump and Pope Francis clash over immigration, another extraordinary campaign twist", "Donald Trump Stares Down The Pope As Vatican Back Peddles On 'Not A Christian' Attack", "Venezuelan president accuses bishops of ignoring Pope Francis", "Pope Francis has a plan for Venezuela: Give it time to work", "Amid nation's crisis, Venezuelan bishops meet pope", "Latin American former leaders criticise Pope's Christmas message", "Pope seeks peace in Venezuela crisis but doesn't pick sides", "Vatican: Papal Honor for Pro-Abortion Politician Not a Sign of Support", "Abortion campaigner says she is 'very honoured' by pontifical award", "Award to pro-abortion politician a matter of protocol, Vatican says", "The Pope's Diplomatic Miracle: Ending the U.S.–Cuba Cold War", "Pope Francis to stop in Cuba en route to U.S., Vatican announces", "Raul Castro may join Catholic Church, he says after Pope Francis meeting", "Praising Pope, Cuban President Says He might return to church", "Pope Francis to tread careful path on Mid-East visit", "Holy Land: Vandal tries to set fire to Dormition Abbey", "The Pope, Mahmoud Abbas, and the 'Angel of Peace, "Vatican signs treaty recognizing State of Palestine", "At Vatican, Abbas is Praised as 'Angel of Peace, "Pope Francis urges peace on visit to Sarajevo, 'Jerusalem of Europe, "Pope Francis Addresses the U.N.: Live Updates", "Ancient Order of Malta faces era of change as interim leader is elected", "Trump: Meeting Pope Francis 'the honor of a lifetime, "Visit of the Holy Father Francis to the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) in Rome for World Food Day", "Pope apologizes for priest sex abuse scandal with 'sorrow and shame, "Tens of thousands pack stadium for first papal mass on Arabian Peninsula", "New Vatican Statue Proclaims Pope Francis' Concern For Refugees", "Pope Francis Cover Story: The Times They Are A-Changin, "Vatican spokesman: media manipulated Pope's family comments", "Catholics Urge Pope Francis to Speak Out for LGBT Rights", "Pope Francis named Esquire's 'Best Dressed Man of 2013' – but why?  He feared for the priests' safety and had tried to change their work prior to their arrest; however, contrary to reports, he never tried to throw them out of the Jesuit order. 99. ", In July 2017 a group of conservative clergy, academics and laymen signed a document labeled as a "Filial Correction" of Francis.  Cardinal Christoph Schönborn later said that Bergoglio was elected following two supernatural signs, one in the conclave and hence confidential, and a Latin-American couple of friends of Schönborn who whispered Bergoglio's name in Schönborn's ear; Schönborn commented "if these people say Bergoglio, that's an indication of the Holy Spirit". That it wasn't an easy thing to do.  Before taking up this new appointment, he spent the first three months of 1980 in Ireland to learn English, staying at the Jesuit Centre at the Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy, Dublin. They're children of God and have a right to a family. Under his leadership, the number of priests assigned to work in the slums doubled. On Heaven and Earth: Pope Francis on Faith, Family, and the Church in the Twenty-First Century by Jorge Mario Bergoglio (2013-04-19)  In his homily Francis focused on the Solemnity of Saint Joseph, the liturgical day on which the Mass was celebrated. On his way back to Rome, Pope Francis surprised reporters traveling with him regarding his seemingly open stance on gay Catholics. He told the members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences that he supported the Big Bang theory and evolution. ", He added: "The forgiveness of God cannot be denied to one who has repented, especially when that person approaches the Sacrament of Confession with a sincere heart in order to obtain reconciliation with the Father. The constitution also allowed for laity to contribute input directly to the synod's secretary general. He simplified the process for declaring matrimonial nullity. Argentina's Kirchner and Pope Francis meet in Rome", "Página 12 sacó notas de Verbitsky sobre Bergoglio y la dictadura", "Vatican releases Pope Francis' coat of arms, motto and ring", "Pope stresses simplicity, ecumenism in inaugural Mass plans", "Pope Francis's missing lung should not be a problem, say doctors", "Sorry, Jorge Mario Bergoglio is not the first non-European pope", "Pope Francis brings no-frills style to papacy", "Pope Francis wants a 'poor Church for the poor, "Pope visits ailing Argentine cardinal in hospital", Audience to Representatives of the Communications Media – Address of the Holy Father Pope Francis, "Pope Francis: 13 key facts about the new pontiff", "Francis and those humble gestures by the Pope, he does not sit on a throne, paying the bill at the hotel", News analysis sidebar to "Pope Francis delivers Easter plea for peace", "Can't chant, can't speak English? In August 2018, a Pennsylvania grand jury report described the actions of more than 300 "predator priests" and their 1,000-plus underage victims, as well as attempts to cover up their misdeeds.  At the 2017 World Food Day ceremony, Francis reiterated that "we see the consequences [of climate change] every day" and that we "know how the problems are to be faced ... [t]hanks to scientific knowledge." In October 2020, Pope Francis expressed his support for same-sex civil unions as seen in the documentary Francisco. Caleb K. Bell (14 March 2013). He appointed Bishop Marcello Semeraro secretary for the group and scheduled its first meeting for 1–3 October. He is the first Pope of the Jesuit Order.  In 2005, Cardinal Bergoglio authorized the request for beatification – the third step towards sainthood – for six members of the Pallottine community murdered in the San Patricio Church massacre. , At the first consistory of his papacy, held on 22 February 2014, Francis created 19 new cardinals. The sodomite rabbi Bergman from Buenos Aires, Argentina is a Freemason (observe the background on his shelf here) and he is not only one of Bergoglio’s close friends but was the one that called for Bergoglio to lead their one world coalition of religions in the G6 Interfaith Summit event (found in the above link) which was held this past September. Francis became the first pope to hold a papal Mass on the Arabian Peninsula, with more than 120,000 attendees in the Zayed Sports City Stadium. He made his profession public on April, 1, 2020 and asked that it be distributed throughout all the world. , The pope presided over a fourth consistory for the elevation of five new cardinals on the afternoon of 28 June 2017.  On 6 April he named José Rodríguez Carballo as secretary for the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, a position that had been vacant for several months. Fox News Channel. He was the first Pope of Latin America, the first Pope to be a Spanish-speaking Pope, the first Jesuit to choose the name of Saint Francis of Assisi, and the great evangelist of the Society of Jesus.  Bergoglio is also a fan of the films of Tita Merello, neorealism, and tango dancing, with a fondness for the traditional music of Argentina and Uruguay known as the milonga. , In 2018, Archbishop Carlo Maria Viganò published an open letter criticizing Francis's handling of the Cardinal McCarrick sex abuse scandal. Jorge Mario Bergoglio - who will be now known as Pope Francis - has spent nearly his entire career at home in Argentina, overseeing churches and shoe-leather priests.  In December 2016, Francis yet made Forbes's list of "The World's Most Powerful People", ranking fifth. , When Bergoglio was elected pope, the initial reactions were mixed.   Bergoglio studied at the archdiocesan seminary, Inmaculada Concepción Seminary, in Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, and, after three years, entered the Society of Jesus as a novice on 11 March 1958. https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/pope-francis.  Fortune magazine also ranked Francis as number one in their list of 50 greatest leaders. It seems to me that my brother cardinals have chosen one who is from faraway. ", After the results of the 2013 papal conclave were announced, U.S. President Barack Obama issued a statement about the new pope: "As the first pope from the Americas, his selection also speaks to the strength and vitality of a region that is increasingly shaping our world, and alongside millions of Hispanic Americans, those of us in the United States share the joy of this historic day.". , Since 2016, Francis has also been contrasted with US President Donald Trump, elected that year, with some conservative critics drawing comparisons between the two.  The campaign to enact same-sex marriage legislation was a particularly tense period in their relations. He also said that evolution "is not inconsistent with the notion of creation.". Normally greeted by adoring crowds, Pope Francis faced hostility ahead of his three-day trip to Chile in January 2018, stemming from lingering anger over his appointment of a bishop accused of covering up sexual abuse by another priest. Jorge Mario Bergoglio, il Pontificato in 5 minuti. , In December 2013, both Time and The Advocate magazines named the Pontiff as their "Person of the Year" in praise and hopes of reforming the Roman Curia while hoping to change the Catholic Church's doctrine on various controversial issues. Immaculate Mary, pray for us! Here I am. In this letter, entitled "Laudato Si," Pope Francis wrote: “If present trends continue, this century may well witness extraordinary climate change and an unprecedented destruction of ecosystems, with serious consequences for all of us.".  Two great-nephews, Antonio and Joseph, died in a traffic collision.  During his papacy, a number of abuse survivors have expressed disappointment in Francis's response to sex abuse in the Church while others have praised him for his actions. ", "Bergoglio: la verdadera historia del Papa Francisco y la dictadura de Videla", "The fake viral photo of pope Francis: who is the priest that gives the communion to Videla", "El mensaje de la Iglesia era para Kirchner", "Suspendió la Iglesia el tedeum en la Capital", "Jorge Bergoglio y los Kirchner: años de una relación tensa", "Cristina Fernández de Kirchner turns Pope Francis from foe to friend", "Pope's diplomacy put to test as leaders flock to Rome", "Making nice? He claims that he talked with Bergoglio and proposed to take part in the meeting, but Bergoglio would have told him that the meeting was canceled because of a misunderstanding by De la Rúa's assistant, who may have declined the president's assistance. He said: "While we venerate the martyrs of Otranto, ask God to support the many Christians who still suffer from violence and give them the courage and fate and respond to evil with goodness. Francis has not publicly replied.  During the 2016 United States presidential election, Francis said of Trump, "A person who only thinks about building walls, wherever they may be, and not building bridges, is not Christian. , Elected at 76 years old, Francis was reported to be healthy and his doctors have said his missing lung tissue, removed in his youth, does not significantly affect his health.  Ploumen, who has been involved in promoting legislation supporting the legalization of abortion, stated that she believed the honor was given to her in the context of the Dutch state visit to the Vatican in June 2017 in her capacity as Minister of Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation. ", "Does Pope Francis have a MA in chemistry?  Francis appointed a commission to advise him about reform of the Bank, and the finance consulting firm Promontory Financial Group was assigned to carry out a comprehensive investigation of all customer contacts of the bank on these facts. , In a break with Vatican tradition, Francis supported the use of force to stop Islamic militants from attacking religious minorities in Iraq. , A February 2014 survey by the World Values Survey cited in The Washington Post and Time shows how the unity Francis had created could be challenged.  He remained a member of that commission's permanent governing body, president of its committee for the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, and a member of its liturgy committee for the care of shrines. , On 29 June 2013, Francis published the encyclical Lumen fidei, which was largely the work of Benedict XVI but awaiting a final draft at his retirement. "Why the first Jesuit pope is a big deal". Before blessing the crowd, he asked those in St. Peter's Square to pray for his predecessor, "the bishop emeritus of Rome" Pope Benedict XVI, and for himself as the new "bishop of Rome". In September 2015, Pope Francis continued to stir up the status quo in the Catholic Church when he announced that priests around the world will be allowed to forgive the “sin of abortion” during a “year of mercy,” which starts December 8, 2015 and ends November 20, 2016. , When he was 21 years old, he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts. It was said that he told Cardinal Francesco Marchisano: "John, I would have called myself John, like the Good Pope; I would have been completely inspired by him". The Pope also raised the age at which the Vatican considers the subjects of pornographic images to be grouped under child pornography from 14 to 18. Jorge Mario Bergoglio (born 17 December 1936) is an Argentine public figure who is de facto head of state of the Vatican City. This was followed in May 2015 with his major encyclical on the environment, Laudato si' (Praise be to you). , Bergoglio was elected pope on 13 March 2013, the second day of the 2013 papal conclave, taking the papal name Francis. Since 2018, he has been a heavily vocal opponent of neo-nationalism. The patron saint of missionaries and one of the founders of the Jesuit order, Saint Francis Xavier sought religious converts throughout Asia during the 1500s. On March 13, 2013, at the age of 76, Bergoglio was named the 266th pope of the Roman Catholic Church — becoming the first citizen from the Americas, the first non-European and first Jesuit priest to be named pope, and adopting the name Pope Francis (he took the title after St. Francis of Assisi of Italy). His name is Don.  The pope has approved beatifications for a range of men and women including the likes of Álvaro del Portillo of Opus Dei (27 September 2014), the martyred archbishop Óscar Romero (23 May 2015) and several large groups of Spanish martyrs. The founder of the Order of Poor Ladies, Saint Clare of Assisi was an Italian saint and one of the first followers of Saint Francis of Assisi. Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in Flores, a neighborhood of Buenos Aires. He is the son of Italian immigrants. . , Francis established the World Day of the Poor in his Apostolic Letter, Misericordia et Misera, issued on 20 November 2016 to celebrate the end of the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy.. , Francis has regularly been accused by conservatives of having a "soft spot" for leftist populist movements. , In 2013, Francis initially reaffirmed the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith's program to reform the U.S. " On the night of his election, he took a bus back to his hotel with the cardinals, rather than be driven in the papal car. , Cardinal Walter Kasper has called mercy "the key word of his pontificate. , Bergoglio was the subject of allegations regarding the Navy's kidnapping of two Jesuit priests, Orlando Yorio and Franz Jalics, in May 1976, during Argentina's Dirty War.  Her complaint did not specify how Bergoglio was involved; Bergoglio's spokesman flatly denied the allegations. There the three Christian leaders signed a joint declaration. , In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles, a school of the Salesians of Don Bosco, in Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires. He broke records after having gained over one million followers in under twelve hours of the account being up. Os dois se casaram em Buenos Aires em dezembro de 1935. May every priest, therefore, be a guide, support and comfort to penitents on this journey of special reconciliation. Later that year, when Cardinal Edward Egan returned to New York following the September 11 attacks, Bergoglio replaced him as relator (recording secretary) in the Synod of Bishops, and, according to the Catholic Herald, created "a favourable impression as a man open to communion and dialogue". However, its conclusion was followed by news that the Pope's financial adviser, Australian Cardinal George Pell, had been convicted of sexually abusing two 13-year-old boys. He built eight more California missions over the next thirteen years. Finally, his ambitious schedule of travel continued, with visits to Paraguay, Bolivia, and Ecuador, as have beatifications. Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, have mercy on us! Throughout his public life, Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, international visibility as pope, concern for the poor and commitment to interreligious dialogue.  Francis is the first Jesuit pope. The archbishop's investigation, which included interviews with dozens of witnesses and produced a 2,300-page report, had a powerful effect on Pope Francis. However, Vatican later clarified that his comments were taken out of context with two comments to two different questions at differnt times spliced together in a very misleading way. , Fernando de la Rúa replaced Carlos Menem as president of Argentina in 1999. That way they are legally covered,” Francis said in the documentary. He urged peace during his time in the religiously diverse city, known as the "Jerusalem of Europe".  According to one expert on religion in Latin America, Mario Paredes, the pope's visit to Cuba was consistent with his aim to promote an understanding of the role of the Cuban Revolution and that of the Catholic Church. , As pope, his manner is less formal than that of his immediate predecessors: a style that news coverage has referred to as "no frills", noting that it is "his common touch and accessibility that is proving the greatest inspiration. Francisco (em latim: Franciscus), S.J., nascido Jorge Mario Bergoglio (Buenos Aires, 17 de dezembro de 1936), é o 266º Papa da Igreja Católica e atual Chefe de Estado da Cidade Estado do Vaticano, sucedendo ao Papa Bento XVI, que abdicou ao papado em 28 de fevereiro de 2013. , Bergoglio was named Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992 and consecrated on 27 June 1992 as titular bishop of Auca, with Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, archbishop of Buenos Aires, serving as principal consecrator. Bergoglio taught literature and psychology at Immaculate Conception College in Santa Fé in 1964 and 1965 and also taught the same subjects at the Colegio del Salvatore in Buenos Aires in 1966. To date, he has beatified more than three dozen people, including Óscar Romero, a priest from El Salvador who was assassinated in 1980 because of his espousal of liberation theology and his activism to protect marginalized people. Ordained as a priest in December 1969, Bergoglio began serving as Jesuit provincial of Argentina in 1973. Late in the month, it was announced that the Pope would host three of the victims from Chile.  Francis was elected on the fifth ballot of the conclave. Pope Francis made his first international visit on July 22, 2013, when he arrived at the Galeão-Antonio Carlos Jobim International Airport in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  He addressed this and the clergy sex abuse scandal by convening a summit on clergy sexual abuse in Rome 21–24 February 2019. Trump responded, "For a religious leader to question a person's faith is disgraceful.  Kirchner considered Bergoglio as a political rival to the day he died in October 2010.  After Francis's visit to Cuba in 2015, Catholic Yale historian Carlos Eire spoke of a "preferential option for the oppressors" in Latin America. He was the first pope from the Western Hemisphere, the first from South America, and the first from the Jesuit order. no regnal number is used for him. According to The Independent newspaper, Pope Francis said that "The Big Bang, which today we hold to be the origin of the world, does not contradict the intervention of the divine creator but, rather, requires it." Francis continued his previous practice of elevating cardinals from the peripheries with an emphasis again on Asia and Africa, such as Patrick D'Rozario from Bangladesh and Dieudonné Nzapalainga from the Central African Republic, while also naming the first three American cardinals of his papacy and only one Curial appointment. He was granted sainthood in 2015. , Popular mainstream media frequently portray Francis either as a progressive papal reformer or with liberal, moderate values. Despite the study, the Supreme Court of Argentina upheld the conviction.  The oratorio was premiered on 6 November 2016 in the Limburg Cathedral.  He was known to be devoted to St. Thérèse of Lisieux, and he enclosed a small picture of her in the letters he wrote, calling her "a great missionary saint".  In 2005, Myriam Bregman, a human rights lawyer, filed a criminal complaint against Bergoglio, as superior in the Society of Jesus of Argentina, accusing him of involvement in the kidnapping. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro (Province of Asti) in Italy's Piedmont region. Upon Quarracino's death on 28 February 1998, Bergoglio became metropolitan archbishop of Buenos Aires.  The only concern would be decreased respiratory reserve if he had a respiratory infection.  Francis still appears at the window of the Apostolic Palace for the Sunday Angelus. ", "FACT CHECK: FALSE: Pope Francis Has a Master's Degree in Chemistry", "TIME's Person of the Year 2013 Pope Francis, The People's Pope", "Argentina's pope a modest man focused on the poor", "Pope Francis is a card-carrying San Lorenzo supporter", "Bergoglio, sobre todo 'pastor', tanguero y simpatizante de San Lorenzo", "Pope Francis Spoke of Being 'Dazzled' by Girl, Possible Change of Celibacy Rule", "En 1958, Bergoglio hizo su noviciado en Chile", "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – Biographies – A", "Was Papst Franziskus in Augsburg machte", "Virgin painting ties Brazilians in knots", "The Pope's chalice: silver-made, austere and featuring Our Lady of Luján", "Patriarch Sviatoslav: Newly Elected Pope Knows Ukrainian Catholic Church, its Liturgy and Spirituality", "To understand Pope Francis, look to the Jesuits", "Setting the Record Straight on Pope Francis: A Reply to Frank Brennan", "Francis Toughened by Argentine Politics Ready for Papal Test", "Pope's episcopal motto comes from homily by English doctor of church", "Jesuit Argentine Cardinal Bergoglio elected pope, takes name Francis".  Some Catholic observers tried to understand it as an allusion to the "permissive will" of God, allowing evil on earth. The Vatican conclave has elected Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio as Pope Francis I Who is Jorge Mario Bergoglio?  He participated as a cardinal elector in the 2005 papal conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI. During a television interview in early December, Pope Francis suggested a small but meaningful change to "Our Father," commonly known as the "Lord's Prayer."  In 2018, Francis acknowledged he had made "grave errors" in judgment about Barros, apologized to the victims and launched a Vatican investigation that resulted in the resignation of Barros and two other Chilean bishops.  Francis recognized seven saints on 14 October 2018, chief among them, his predecessor Pope Paul VI and Óscar Romero. …Bergoglio was no accomplice of the dictatorship.  The claims were based on a diary purportedly belonging to an anonymous cardinal who had been present at the conclave. The first Pope of the Americas Jorge Mario Bergoglio hails from Argentina.  In the news media, both faithful and non-believers often refer to a "honeymoon" phase in which the pope has changed the tone on Catholic doctrines and supposedly initiated ecclesiastical reform in the Vatican.  As of May 2013, sales of papal souvenirs, a sign of popularity, were up. Paus Franciscus, geboren als Jorge Mario Bergoglio (Buenos Aires, 17 december 1936), is sinds 13 maart 2013 de paus van de Rooms-Katholieke Kerk, een ambt dat inhoudt dat hij leider van deze kerk, bisschop van Rome en soeverein vorst van Vaticaanstad is. 27 November 2015 by the agency AFP and it was revealed that the.! School as a normal customer of the order, in April 2015 the investigation was brought to a of! Contains speeches by Francis and accompanying music, including rock music became metropolitan archbishop Buenos! 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The Society of Jesus and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of a & e Television Networks LLC! Communio allowed that the diversity of religions might also be `` evidence of natural.